Wednesday, August 27, 2008


Moses Mendelssohn, the grandfather of the well-known German composer, was far from being handsome. Along with a rather short stature, he had a grotesque hunchback.

One day he visited a merchant in Hamburg who had a lovely daughter named Frumtje. Moses fell hopeless in love with her. But Frumtje was repulsed by his misshapen appearance.

when it came time for him to leave, Moses gathered his courage and climbed the stairs to her room to take one last opportunity to speak with her. She was a vision of heavenly beauty, but caused him deep sadness by her refusal to look at him. After several attempts at conversation. Moses shyly asked,"Do you believe marriages are made in heaven?"

"Yes,"she replied, still looking at the floor."And do you?"

"Yes i do,"he answered. "You see in heaven at the birth of each boy, the Lord announces which girl he will marry. When i was born, my future bride was pointed out to me. Then the Lord added,"but your wife will be humpbacked."

"Right then and there i called out, "Oh Lord, a humpbacked woman would be a tragedy. Please, lord, give me the hump and let her be beautiful."

Then Frumtje looked up into his eyes and was stirred by some deep memory. She reached out and gave Mendelssohn her hand and later became his devoted wife.


Monday, August 18, 2008

Mt. Singai Bau

Steps by steps journey to the submit of mount Singai Bau...
(MOST photo take by me)

Reach the top and go down to the foothill again....


Wednesday, August 13, 2008


2day so unlucky 1 boh...
when i step into my classroom in school this morning,
my friend ask me whether i m choosen 2 go 2 PLKN...
so they teach me 2 check using sms...
i quickly take out my phone 2 check...
after few sconds..............
they reply....
i hold my breath 2 open the msg...
n it sayssssssssssss...................
"Thaniah!91XXXXXXXXXX ALVINA TING MEI JOO telah dipilih untuk menyertai PLKN Siri 6/2009."
my face bcum red n hot...
suddenly my mood went down down down under the seabed......
no mood 2 study dy.....
1 2 go home n tell my daddy...
1 2 apply dont 1 go......
lost in the space oo...haizzz.........

Saturday, June 28, 2008

Beautiful Memory...

~ Beautiful Sunset at Damai~

On the 20th June sportday...
but i dint go...^^
i overnight at my cousin's friend house before go to Damai...
We look for food until 1am something...

~Aaron(front), Khang Ling(left), Me(middle) & Lui Chin(right) in the pool~

~Aaron & Willie~

Aaron & Willie always sleep late one...go to the beach to catch crabs...Gylyn follow suits...We swim so become "lobster" le...I become barbiedoll...that "king kong" carry and throw me into the water...xp Ron become my horse...hahaha...

~All in...except Willie~

Front: Me, Lui Chin, Khang Ling, Su Ling(my cousin)

Back: Aaron & Gylyn

~Now is except Khang Ling...What is Aaron doing???~

~Enjoy Willie cook de mushroom soup...Aaron is trying to hide me with his bowl...MISSION FAIL...haha...xp~

~Aaron & I in the bus...on the way sunlight..xp~

~Another beautiful sunset at Damai~

The day pass so fast...3 days 2 night at Damai Beach had ended...i fell so 1 go home le...i belive the others feel it too...It was a memorable holiday at Damai for all of us...Hope we can go together again...but my cousin say have to wait SPM end then will bring me go...

Thursday, June 5, 2008

Surviving a Long Distance Relationship

Challenging and difficult, though they may not be what we want to hear, are the words that best describe long distance relationships. Keep in mind however, that the words are challenging and difficult, not impossible. Many people choose to give a long distance relationship a try, with the constant curiosity if it was the right decision to make and if it even stands a chance. The truth is, a long distance relationship has just as much a chance of succeeding as any other relationship!

Long Distance Relationships share the same facts as an average relationship. It involves two people who share an interest in each other's lives, care for one another and of course have a love for each other that they hope will only continue to grow. On the other hand, a long distance relationship does have its differences as well. It takes away your ability to see each other on a frequent note, as well as the choice of being intimate whenever you desire, not to mention that there would be major trust required. Being unable to spend time together in a physical presence makes it harder to hang on to, but does not spell out doom for your relationship.

The first step is to make an agreement of what your expectations are in the relationship and how much of a commitment you are willing to give and receive. If the two of you decide to be monogamous, then it is clear that neither of you will be dating anyone else as long as your romantic relationship exists. Being clear about what you both want is extremely important, especially in a long distance relationship, in order to prevent future misunderstandings and mistakes. Do not feel afraid to tell your partner what you really need and want from him or her, you deserve the chance to speak from your heart and he or she deserves to know the truth and judge whether they can give it to you.

Trust is a major necessity if you wish to have your relationship from a distance. Without trust and honesty, the relationship is in for danger and unsuccessfulness, just as it would be any other relationship. By accepting the challenge of a long distance relationship, you also accepted the fact that you will have to have the trust and faith that your partner will not be seeing anyone else as promised. Being paranoid and accusing will only grow doubts, insecurity and tension between you and none of those three will help the relationship survive successfully.

Keeping each other informed of the friendships you have with other people and the events that take place in your personal life is a great way to keep your relationship alive and healthy; and continues to make your partner a part of your life. It is essential that you receive the same information from your partner as well, so you both feel the same security and satisfaction that you both crave. Be creative with the way you keep in touch, such as calling, e-mailing, faxing and sending cards. Pay attention to how many times a week you are staying in touch as well. If you want your bond to stay strong and loving, you have to hear from one another often, leaving as little room for any of you to start getting paranoid about anything. Although you cannot be romantic towards each other on a physical note, you can still perform romantic acts that will keep the romance department happy. You can do this by sending love letters and poems, having flowers and gifts delivered, or even sending a video of yourself with a loving message. Reminding your partner of how much you think about and love him or her will score high points, making them miss you more with the constant urge to see you.

Planning reunions play a big part in keeping your relationship exciting, plus serve you the satisfaction of being able to see and touch each other occasionally. It gives you the opportunity to catch up on each other's life in person and to be able to share physical and intimate activities together, which will fulfill both of your needs and desires. Not re-uniting every once in a while will only damage the relationship you have, so if one of you are not willing to visit the other occasionally, then you may need to question the interest and care your partner has for you and should probably end the relationship and move on. If you and your partner truly want this to work out, then you will both continue to be eager to see each other as often as you can and every time to have the chance to.

Setting a limit of how long you will be apart is a wise thing to do if you do not want to end up waiting forever. There will be a day when you and your partner will have to start planning a serious future, which can only happen when you are living in the same area or perhaps even living together, whichever makes you most comfortable. If none of you are willing to agree on a place to settle and start having a relationship where you see each other on a regular basis, then you can pretty much forget about accomplishing anything out of your long distance relationship. If your partner truly loves you and wants to be with you, then they would not want to wait forever to be with you.

With the right amount of effort and interest on both parts, a long distance relationship can survive the obstacles it will frequently be challenged with. As long as you both refresh your memories of why you chose to do this in the first place, trust each other, inform one another of your personal lives, keep in touch, and visit, your relationship can turn out to be one of the most successful and happy relationships that ever existed. You both will be secure, happy and satisfied until the day comes when you will re-unite for good and build your wonderful future together.

Long Distance Relationship Gift Ideas

Are you stuck trying to find a unique gift for your mate? Below you will find some great gift ideas that will be sure to wow your mate!

Give the Gift of Beer
What man wouldn't love to get beer as a gift! I'm not talking about the six-pack that you get at the grocery store, but a home micro brewery kit! These kits teach you and provide you with all the equipment you need to brew your own beer at home! Your man will be the envy of all his friends and it will all be because of you.

Gifts That Keeps on Giving
Gift clubs allow you to choose an item like wine, cigars, or cookies and have them delivered to your mate every month for up to a year! It's a great way to continually send a gift without having to purchase and send every month.

Is your mate a big sports fan or does he/she love going to concerts? Why not buy them a couple of tickets to a sports game or a concert. Buy them two tickets, so they can take a friend. If you really want to make it special, send them one ticket and surprise them at the event by sitting in the seat next to them. This will surely be a present and a moment that the two of you will never forget.

Music to My Ears
Does you mate have an iPod? If he or she does, create a play list of your favorite songs and send them to your mate. Not only will you be giving a great gift, but you'll also be sharing your music taste with your mate.

Tasty Treats
Sending your mate cakes, cookies, and other treats can be a good alternative to flowers. This is a great gift on birthdays! You can't share a cake with your mate, but you can definitely send him or her one!

Treat your mate to a day at the local spa! At Spa Finder, you can search for local spas and order gift certificates to send to your mate. You can search by zip code, so it's very easy to find a great spa.

Long Distance Relationship Poems

The Road Not Taken
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveller, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;
Then took the other, as just as fair
And having perhaps the better claim
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yey knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sign
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I -
I took the one less travelled by,
And that has made all the difference.
By Robert Frost
Remember me when I am gone away,
Gone far away into the silent land;
When you can no more hold me by the hand,
Nor I half turn to go yet turning stay.
Remember me when no more day by day
You tell me of our future that you plann'd;
Only remember me; you understand
It will be late to counsel then or pray.
Yet if you should forget me for a while
And afterwards remember, do not grieve:
For if the darkness and corruption leave
A vestige of the thoughts that once I had,
Better by far you should forget and smile
Than that you should forget and smile
By Christina G. Rossetti
COLD in the earth—and the deep snow piled above thee,
Far, far removed, cold in the dreary grave!
Have I forgot, my only Love, to love thee,
Sever'd at last by Time's all-severing wave?
Now, when alone, do my thoughts no longer hover
Over the mountains, on that northern shore,
Resting their wings where heath and fern-leaves cover
Thy noble heart for ever, ever more?
Cold in the earth—and fifteen wild Decembers
From those brown hills have melted into spring:
Faithful, indeed, is the spirit that remembers
After such years of change and suffering!
Sweet Love of youth, forgive, if I forget thee,
While the world's tide is bearing me along;
Other desires and other hopes beset me,
Hopes which obscure, but cannot do thee wrong!
No later light has lighten'd up my heaven,
No second morn has ever shone for me;
All my life's bliss from thy dear life was given,
All my life's bliss is in the grave with thee.
But when the days of golden dreams had perish'd,
And even Despair was powerless to destroy;
Then did I learn how existence could be cherish'd,
Strengthen'd and fed without the aid of joy.
Then did I check the tears of useless passion—
Wean'd my young soul from yearning after thine;
Sternly denied its burning wish to hasten
Down to that tomb already more than mine.
And, even yet, I dare not let it languish,
Dare not indulge in memory's rapturous pain;
Once drinking deep of that divinest anguish,
How could I seek the empty world again?
By Emily Brontë.

Do you Trust Your Mate?

Trusting your mate is one of the most difficult issues that couples in long distance relationships have to deal with. It is difficult due to the distance and not being able to see your mate. Thoughts of infidelity and other misdeeds can easily creep into your mind. You begin to think, “Is he seeing someone else?” or “Is she going out partying every night?” If those statements remind you of yourself, please read on and follow the steps suggested below.

Step 1:~
The first step is to analyze whether the distance between you and your mate or your mate as a person causes your trust issues. Are there specific actions that your mate is doing that trigger your mistrust? For example, is he or she always hard to get a hold of on the phone or does he or she not introduce you to friends and family? If yes, then you may have justification for your mistrust and should discuss them openly with your mate. Otherwise, it is more than likely that your mistrust is rooted in the distance between you two and not based on your mate’s actions. This type of mistrust lies within yourself, as your mate is not doing anything wrong. If you fall within this category, you should definitely follow step two.

Step 2:~
The second step is to make an investment in a good self-help book. Building trust is not an overnight process and you are not going to find all the answers on the web. Most good self-help books will have exercises and a plan laid out for you to follow. You will gradually start to build trust in not only your long distance relationship, but with all other relationships as well. Below are some suggested books that you can take a look at.
The Courage To Trust: A Guide To Building Deep And Lasting Relationships
Broken Promises, Mended Hearts : Maintaining Trust in Love Relationships
Building Trust : In Business, Politics, Relationships, and Life

In summary, trust is a complicated issue and they key in long distance relationships is to determine whether the trust issues are based on fact or if the issues lie within yourself. If they are based on fact, you should confront your mate and discuss the issues with him or her. If they lie within yourself, you should find some books to help you to build your trust.

Communication Tips for Long Distance Relationship

If you have been in your long distance relationship for a while, you probably know that it sometimes can be hard to come up with things to talk about on the phone. This is not because the two of you are not compatible, it’s because couples in long distance relationships are on the phone so much they usually exhaust topics really fast. How many times can you ask how the other person’s day was, right? Below is a list of interesting conversation topics that will hopefully keep your phone calls fresh. Scan the newspaper or your favorite online news source for the latest currents events. Pick a topic that you think will interest your mate and discuss it with him or her.

1. Ask Questions
This may seem obvious, but most people just don't ask enough questions. I'm not talking about “How was your day?” or “What is the weather like,” but rather questions that will help you get to know your mate better. Typically these questions are not one-word answers and will lead to further conversation. Some examples are below:
If you were going to be stuck on a deserted island and you could only bring three things with you, what would it be and why?
What's the most embarrassing thing that has happened to you?

2. Talk About Your Mate
People love to talk about themselves and their hobbies. Find out what your mate is passionate about and then learn as much as you can about the subject. Once you have learned as much as you can, you can discuss it with your mate the next time you are on the phone together. Your mate will be impressed with you taking the time to learn about his or her passion.

3. Talk about Friends and Family
Talking about friends and family is an important step to making a long distance relationship successful. If the two of you decide to get married one day, you will need to interact with your mate’s friends and family, so it’s a good idea to get to know what they are like.
In closing, I’d like to mention that the most important part of the conversation is not what you say, but rather how well you listen. Listen to what your mate is saying to you and you'll always have something to talk about.

Tips for Long Distance Relationship

Tips 1:
Take pictures of everyday activities and send them to your mate.
A picture is worth a thousand words and can help you and your mate feel closer together in your long distance relationship. Today, with most cell phones equipped with a digital camera and cameras small enough to fit in your pocket, it’s very easy and convenient to take pictures and email them to your mate. With pictures, your mate can easily know what you are talking about when you describe the great party you went to or the new hairstyle that you just got. Some other examples of when you can take a picture are listed below:
* New outfit that your have purchased.
* Family or friends get together.
* Changes to your bedroom.
* Changes to your physical appearance (hairstyle, piercing, etc.)
* Pictures of your office or cubicle.

Tips 2:
Send gifts to your mate’s from their local country or city.
You can save a lot of money by searching the Internet for local companies to buy from and deliver your gifts. For example, if you are living in the United States and your mate is from Italy, find an Italian company that has the great gift that you want to send to your mate. In most cases, you will save on international shipping costs and you might even save on the currency exchange rate. Also, a local company will be able to deliver a gift much quicker for those last minute shoppers.

Tips 3:
Use text-messaging capability to keep in touch more frequently.
Text messaging can be a simple was to keep in touch with your mate in a long distance relationship. For those across the border relationships, this can also be an inexpensive way to communicate. It’s not always convenient to call, so text messages are a good alternative. You can send good night messages or little love notes throughout the day.

Tips 4:
Trust your mate.
Ideas of mistrust can easily seep into the minds of those involved in a long distance relationship because you don’t get to physically see your mate. They may be saying that they are not seeing anyone else, but how do you know that for sure hundreds or even thousands of miles away? This mistrust can ultimately lead to the relationship ending. You should approach the trust issue in a long distance relationship the same way as you would in a normal relationship. If there is no indication or evidence of cheating, it is most likely not happening.

Tips 5:
Introduce your mate to your friends and family.
How many times have you been out with your friends and you bring up your mate into conversation and your friends don’t believe he/she even exists? It is typical in a long distance relationship when two people visit each other they spend time only with each other. Although it is necessary to have time together, it is also necessary for your mate to experience other aspects of your life. Introduce him/her to your friends and family, so they can get to know your mate. It will only broaden your relationship and it will have a greater chance to succeed.

Tips 6:
Visit each other frequently.
This is not really a tip for a long distance relationship to be successful, but rather a requirement. To keep your long distance relationship going, you need to have in your mind the feeling and emotions of being with your mate. What keeps you together while you are apart is the idea of eventually being together. This can only be achieved by visiting each other whenever you have a chance.

Tips 7:
Ease into being together.
It can sometimes be difficult for two people who are involved in a long distance relationship to connect easily when they are together with their mate. Yes, you probably know everything about each other and talk everyday, but that is not a substitute for real contact. Both of you will need some time to adjust to being in each other’s presence. Be aware that it may take your mate longer than you and you should allow them that time.

Tips 8:
Write letters and send cards.
Nothing is more romantic than a handwritten letter or card that you send to your mate for no reason at all. Variety in a long distance relationship will help keep things new and fresh. Your mate will appreciate the fact that you took time out to write such a wonderful letter or sent a card.

Thursday, May 29, 2008

爱情像... ...

你们认为爱情想什么呢?有人说爱情像水,温柔明亮;也有人说,爱情像酒,越久越醉;还有人说,爱情像风,来去无踪... ...









Saturday, May 17, 2008




































会分别 反正梦都是太匆匆

































Sunday, April 20, 2008

I Believe

有一个模糊的光芒 指引我追寻心里的梦想
每一天我需要多一点勇气 灌溉我的心 让信心能继续
我知道这旅程一定会很艰难必须面对这一切 不管多累
I Believe 我有一天会能够让自己所有的梦想实现
wo yeah~
我知道会有一天 生命中的希望会在我眼前出现
wo wo yeah~
再也不用一直怀疑 因为爱存在我心里面
Coz I Believe~~~
Coz I Believe~~
要看清楚 很容易迷失了方向
追寻这个梦 让未来发光
oh..不怕错 只怕我知道不敢做绝不能轻易
把一切都放弃 我知道 这旅程一定会很艰难
必须面对这一切 不管多累
I Believe ~
我有一天 会能够让自己所有的梦想实现
wo yeah~~
我知道会有一天 生命中的希望会在我眼前出现
wo wo yeah~~~
再也不用一直怀疑 因为爱存在我心里面
I Believe~
就在今天 我一定让自己所有的梦想实现
wo~再也不用一直怀疑 因为爱存在我心里面
Coz I Believe~
因为我相信在眼前 每一个梦想都实现
我看的清楚 看的很清楚

Friday, April 11, 2008




所谓:“there is a will, there is a way”,对求学充满热情的学生,千万别为了“钱不够用”的问题而气馁,可尝试寻求各奖贷学金单位的协助。




相信大家也读过小学、中学和大学,科目如海,功课如山,夜半挑灯苦读,用不加糖的浓咖啡熬夜; 的确也“深受其害”。


Saturday, March 22, 2008


天使,其英文名称Angel,源自于希腊文angelos = 使者。 在、犹太教伊斯兰教和基督教中对天使的概念十分相近,它们是侍奉神的灵,神差遣它们来帮助需要拯救的人,传达神的意旨,是神在地上的 发言人。天使的外形是人形(即是神的形状)会在身上发出光辉,头顶上 方有光环,背后长有翅膀。虽然有很多人声称自己曾目睹天使的出现。 但天使本身是没有实体的灵体,实体化的例子实在少之又少,而且会 消耗大量灵力。它如要以实体态出现而不消耗灵力,就只有附身(依凭)了。 但因为天使是“纯净体”,不可以附身于任合生物的身上,唯一只可附 身在无原罪体上(无灵魂的生物)。天使是纯“善”的化身,所以绝对不 会容忍“恶”的存在,但也不算是人类的朋友。根据旧约圣经所述, 天使会按照神的命令,对有罪的人进行苛刻严厉的惩罚。例如在一 夜之间杀死了十八万五千亚述人士兵(列王纪),和令所有埃及人的头 一胎和家畜死掉(出埃及)都是其中的例子。 天使作有系统分类、命名的著作首推希腊人Dionigi l'Areopagita (圣保罗门徒,记于新约圣经《使徒行传》第十七章末)的《天上位阶论》 和意大利人Thomas d'Aquinos(1226~1274)所著的『神学总论』(Summa Theologie)。这两本书奠定了一般共同信奉的天使学基本架构。此外, 叙利亚修道神学者(伪名)狄俄尼索斯的《天阶体系》也对天使学作了详细 和权威的解说。除此之外,另一部被基督教列为伪典 (被教会认为是伪冒神的旨意的经典) 的《以诺书》(以诺书Enoch)─是亚森尼派的主要经典之一,为基督教新教 中所承貌7b,人类史上唯一连同肉身升天的三人之一,另二人是以色列动乱 时代的先知以利亚和基督耶稣。 但是旧教-天主教-则认为以诺和以利亚并非被接至天堂,而是地上乐园) , 被称为-天使的宝库,著于西元前二世纪左右,详细记载了天使 的生活、名称、职掌、性格等等,此书于四世纪被教会批为伪典, 自此从基督教经典群中消失。 再来谈到《死海文书》(Death Sea Scrolls) 。1947年,一名贝多因牧童在 巴勒斯坦死海附近的一个洞窟中,发现了这一批写在羊皮纸上的经书, 经过科学监定之后,确定是公元纪元开始的前后一段时间之内抄写成的 (1948年以色列建国战争爆发,文书的译解和公开因此迟延了许久, 有人怀疑是基督教势力暗中阻挠这项工作,以免圣经的权威遭到挑战,即使公布后,仍有人认为当局隐匿了部分关键文件未公开) 。 全部文书是犹太教之一派,激进的禁欲主义教派:亚森尼派之“克兰教团” 的教规。基督教矢口否认克兰教团和基督教有何牵连, 不过也有传说说该教团实是耶稣表兄(及施洗者)约翰所主持的,甚或是耶稣自己创立的,或者是耶稣的敌对者等等。 至于中世纪基督教文学名著,但丁(Dante Alighieri 1265~1321)的《神曲》(Divina Commedia)和弥尔顿(John Milton 1608~1674)的《失乐园》 (Paradise Lost ),其实没有十分系统化地地描述天使团。至于基督教圣经, 更是刻意将天使的存在和名号模糊、虚质化,新教教会也从不以天使为 主题进行讨论,盖因唯恐信徒将天使当作膜拜对象,触犯了基督教

第一 天条:崇拜偶像之罪。 '七'是一个人类颇有偏好的数字。可能是以以诺书为源头, 在基督教传说中,天界分为七重,直到宗教改革之后,新教将这类神 话性的教义给去除了。 但在但丁的神曲中,天界与当时的天文思想相 结合,月球与诸星以地为中心环绕运行,因此升天的过程会依序经过 月球、水星等等,最后再加上纯想象的二重天。 以下将但丁的说法和 正统的说法并陈,括弧内为《神曲》天堂篇的记载. 第一天,称为Shiamaim,由加百列掌管。 驻守此地的天使群也负责 管理星星、气象等等。(月球天:最接近尘世的天界,信仰不坚者的居住地。)

第二天,称为Akira,大天使拉斐尔的领地、部份受惩天使的禁闭所亦设于此。 (水星天:第二重天,力行善事者,死后灵魂居于此天。)

第三天,Sagoon或Shehkim,支配天使为权天使Anael。在伊斯兰教中, 死亡天使Azrael领有此一天界。(金星天:多情者的灵魂居所。)

第四天,Zeble或Mahanon,还有数种不同称呼,由大天使米迦尔支配。 启示录中所记载的天上耶路撒冷城,便坐落于太阳天, 以诺书亦声称生命之树长在太阳天的义人之园中。 (太阳天:智者与圣者被安置于此重天。)

第五天,Mahon,此天之北部为荒凉废墟,设有天使的牢狱, 南方则是舒适宜人。火星天的支配者一说为Metatron的双生子 Sandalphon,一说为堕天使Samael。详见下文 ( 火星天:殉教者的灵魂被赐居此天。)

第六天,Zebel或Maccon,天使学习智识的所在, 智天使的大本营。日与夜分别由Zeber、Saabs掌管。 (木星天:明君的居所,介于炎热的火星和寒冷的土星之间,因此气候宜人。)

第七天,Arabot,神的御座设于此,诸天使环绕飞行,为充满荣光的所在。 (土星天:隐士、清心寡欲者的灵魂住在这里。) 恒星天:(圣彼得于此查核信徒的资质。) 水晶天(原动天):(神的所在地,宇宙动力的来源。天使军团的大本营就设在其中。

而希伯来人的传说则是将「天」分为九层, 这一三元组构成了一个真正的、成员之间平等的单独阶层体系。后来根据大致上公认的天使学说《天阶体系》---(狄俄尼索斯)的记载, 神的御座前围绕著九层天使军团。此并非是圣经的原文,而是中世纪神学家哈尔罗修斯提出的。这九阶级之说于教皇格雷哥里一世(Gregory Ⅰ) 时代被罗马教廷认可。每三个阶层又可归类为一个群组。 炽天使存在于最内层,是纯粹光的存在、最接近神,愈往外圈,光的力 量愈弱,渐次物质化。低级的天使通过上一层的天使来获得上帝的启示。 而低级的天使又可以通过领悟来提升他们的阶层体系,一级一级地向上层靠拢。这三组九阶级兹列举如下:


* 炽天使 Seraphim

* 智天使 Cherbim

* 座天使 Ofanim


* 主天使 Dominions

* 力天使 Virtues

* 能天使 Powers


* 权天使 Principalities

* 大天使 Archangels

* 天使 Angels

虽然在『以诺书』曾刊出150个天使的名称,但据说天上的天使总数 则是众说纷纭,从数十~数百名(守护七行星、四季、十二个月份、一周七 日、一日之各时段等等),到301,655,722名(含133,306,668名堕天者),到6,666 军团、各团6,666名,并无定论。除了这些正式的天使之外,以魔王撒旦 (Satan)为首的堕天使群(不过由我掌握的圣经知识,并没有明指撒旦 就是路西法。这我在下文中有记述),则是另一类引人争议的存在, 有人说堕天使是“第十阶级”,堕天的原因和堕天者的身份在不同的传说 中差异甚大(祥见下文)。 几乎所有使徒/天使都是以'尔'(el、elle etc.)等为名号的尾字,这究竟是什么意思呢?'尔'就是'天使'的意思吗?不接'尔',其天使之身便很可疑吗?其实不是的。'EL'和其它近似字根源远流长,其在各语文中的含意如下:

亚卡德语:ILU----------- 辉煌之物



阶级体系的最初一级是真正的最高存在者按阶层等级构建 的,因为这一阶层体系级别最高,是上帝的近邻,被立于上帝的四周, 接受最初的“神显”与“完全”。它们的称号都表明他们与上帝的本质 的相似之处。炽天使,圣名是“撒拉弗”意思是造热者,传热者。是神的使者 中最高位者,不过极少从事任何劳动,唯一的使命(或云本质)就是歌颂神, 展现神的爱。炽天使无形无体、与神直接沟通,是纯粹的光和思考的灵体, 以其振动创造生命,以赤红的火焰为象徽,是以太阳为化身的最优秀的天 使。若是必须现身于人前时,是以六翼四首(亦有二首之说)之姿出现,身上 的六翼是“行动力”的象征。古以色列战乱时代的大先知以赛亚曾描述在神 的御座前目击炽天使的经过,因而留下了六翼及此六翼之姿态的传说。炽天 使一睁眼,就会发出如狮吼声,并发出红色电光划过长空,形如长蛇(龙)。 炽天使的希伯来语,是治愈者、至高者(或守护天使)二字的合成字,因此蛇 或龙自古即是医学的代表(如果读者们有注意到的话,可以发现一些医院或军 医使用绘以两条交缠在杖上的蛇为象征)。炽天使的语源, 也有说法是'燃烧'和'蛇'的合成。这一阶的天使只有几位而已,当然最有名的 就是Lucifer,光辉的晨星路西法(也称作路西菲尔或者鲁斯化,还有很多) 这位著名人物原先是天使长。另一位呢?就是原来的七大天使之一,因率领 天使军和撒旦作战,而被升为炽天使的米胞b勒了。而七大天使的另一个地位 紧次于米迦勒的Gabriel(加百列)却是下级的大天使。另有一说,所谓炽天使仅 是这二名大天使的共同体 (Michael(米迦勒)和Gabriel(加百列)),高阶天使和下级的大天使相互混淆、隶属的情形所在多有,尤以炽天使和智天使此二阶级为然, 因此也有人说炽天使应有四个:Michael(米迦勒)、Gabriel(加百列)、 Raphael(拉斐尔)、 Uriel(乌利尔),又称四大君主(分别象征火、水、风、 地四元素)。所奇怪的是,没有什么人认真的去解释其间的关系,不过可以 推论出来三种单纯的解释:
1.这四大君主(或二位大天使)朝见神的御座前时便脱去下级天使的躯体成 为无形体的炽天使;



或者,与其说炽天使是诸 天使之一,不如说是某些天使所特具的'位格 ',或是某些特别光辉耀眼的 天使,其荣光的代名词吧!智天使,象征神的智慧,代表人物是:Cherubines(Cherubim),伊甸园的守护者,其语源为'仲裁者'或'知识',在其圣名是'基璐帕'。意味者认知 和看见神的力量。在犹太教和基 督教中都认定他是神将亚当和夏娃逐出伊甸 后,遣于伊甸园东方,用旋转的火焰之剑与另两个智天使 Ithuriel(神的发现) 和 Zephon(神的探索)共同守护生命之树。智天使是圣经中第一个出场的天使, 在智天使的形态,在狄奥尼修斯的《天体阶级》中把智天使和炽天使的区别 规为“多目”和“多翼”。这一特征表明了智天使有直接凝视上帝之光芒的 能力,同时不动情地,纯洁地和开放地接受来自上帝的光照。这一说法被后 世广泛接收。而在另一部旧约经典『以西结书』中的描述为两对蓝色的翅 膀(教会一般根本不太敢理会这部经文) 按,炽天使及智天使,在正式的天使系统中应该是处于最内环的天,是无 实体的存在,然而说书人故事说多了,便将此二者具象化了。 原属于智天使阶级的著名人物就应该是原七大天使之一,职务为警卫长 加百列和乌利尔,以及原为能天使拉斐尔(拉法叶)。 座天使,这称号表明它们之中有一种对一切尘世缺陷的超越。 由于它们毫无激情和没有对物质的关怀而完全适宜于接受神圣的巡视。 如果炽、智天使维持其纯灵的存在体的话,位于第三天或第四天的座天 使(掌管神的正义)才应该是物质世界和神国间的界面,是物质世界的基础 及来源。这个名号表明他们之中有一种对一切尘世缺陷的超越。 犹太教似乎认为所有希伯来人的祖先升天后,俱化为座天使。此说自未为 基督教所纳。不过私底下,座天使中较有名的有:Thrones(Throni) , 座天使的支配者,或云人前的具象化身,是大天使 Rafael。

天界理性的中间等级代表了自己对上帝的复从。 它们通过上级天使的中介而间接地从神圣的光照那里接受洁净、光明和完全。 它们的使命为调和所有呈两极对峙的事物与现象,由于经常穿梭于极端间, 其工作十分紧张危险,一不小心即可能误入歧途。 主天使,别名颇多,如“唯一神”---多神教的最高神。 这称谓表示它们拒绝空洞的外表,彻底回归向真正的主,并尽最大可能分有 一切主治的永久和神圣的泉源。“神学总论”谓其职务为“管理天使的工作”。 可是不知怎的,却有一些天使据称是这一阶天使的支配者,如吐焰天使哈斯麦 尔、记忆天使萨多基尔等等。 力天使,意思是神的美德,指在它一切与上帝相像的行动中的一种 豪迈而不可撼动的勇气。它们是神迹的执行者,英雄与奋战不懈者的挚友, 给予受苦难的义人勇气。基督升天、夏娃产长子该隐时亦传各有二名力天使 护持。此一级的天使也有下级天使为其支配君主,如:Gabriel、Rafael)、 喀西马尼园中现身于耶稣前的便是 Kamael。 能天使,Deunamis、Potentiaties,别名权威,表明天界的和理性的 权威的有序本性。传说中,它们是神所造的第一批天使,与恶魔争战时的 天界前锋。保罗于新约“罗马人书”第十三章的训论可能就是在讲论能天 使。此一级的天使驻于第一天和第二天间的危险地带,担任卫戍天国的任 务 (天界国境守备队),防备恶魔的侵入,或在人心之中护佑人心的平衡。 然而能天使与黑暗势力的接触频繁,因此也产生了一些堕落者。不过堕落 的能天使,也许其真正的目的是调和神与恶魔也说不定。能天使的君主是 Kamael,仰望神者之意。一如能天使的亦正亦邪,Kamael 也以光明天使 和堕落天使之姿交互出现。有人将 Kamael 列为神前的七名大天使之一。 创世纪中与雅各摔角(另一说是拉斐尔)、喀西马尼园中现身于耶稣前的便 是 Kamael。至于黑暗面的 Kamael,是地狱的豹形公爵,阻挠摩西领受神的十诫。 Kamael在神秘学中是代表邪恶的火星的支配者。由于火星在许 多神话中都被视为战争之星,因此 Kamael 也成了战神化身,统领14万4千 名破坏天使、惩罚天使、复仇天使及死亡天使。

下级三队的天使团无疑在所有传说中俱是有形有体的,是物质世界能直接观看、接触的天使。 权天使,可说是唯一以'领域'为职务的天使阶级,是守护神的国土的天使。依俗世的国家、城市、宗教团体划分其势力范围。因此有不少权天使是由异地异族的神祗转化而来的,如尼斯洛克(亚述国的鹫头神祗), 身兼地狱大厨师,权天使的首Anael贵为七名创世天使之一,是第二天的长官,统辖范围远及月球,不过他是主天使之一,并非下级天使。指挥权天 使管理天下万国。另有一名疑似权天使的君主,名唤 Hamiel,传说是他接 以诺升天(或是Raguel)的。 所有天使阶级、名号中最响亮的莫过于大天使了。不少对西方宗教 毫无概念的人多少也知道一两个大天使。在《启示录》中明载著“神的御 座前有七名天使侍立”,一般都解为七名大天使(伊斯兰教只承认四名大天 使)。至于为什么明明是下级天使,却在天使军团中有如此崇高的地位, 甚至身兼数个高阶天使团的君主,只能说九阶级的分类并不代表地位的高 低或重要性的多寡吧!又或者各阶级只是职务之分,一天使若身负多重职务, 便有多重身份。犹太教和基督教的文献多认同七名大天使之说,因新约 《启示录》第八章明白指出神前侍立七名大天使,因而基督教一致认可 七大天使之说,伊斯兰教则只承认四名大天使之说。无论是四名亦或是 七名,名号其实都不是十分肯定的。米迦勒和加百列是众望所归,拉斐尔 和乌利叶是最有可能的候补,若是七名大天使的场合,梅塔特隆、雷米尔、 沙利尔、亚纳尔、拉贵尔和拉结尔是比较常见的名字。 不过,亚森尼派至少相信有十四名大天使,对应于他们的生命之树的七枝 七根、七日七夜。

Michael(米迦勒) :“与神相似者”。可能是卡地亚的神祗融入基督教 的产物。在旧约圣经中提及名称的大天使仅米迦勒和加百列(罗马天主 教承认另一部『托比书』为旧约经典之一,其中有提及拉斐尔)。但在 基督教文化中,米迦勒却是最耀眼 、最著名的大天使,其事迹有: 一夜之间歼灭进犯耶路撒冷的十五万亚述大军、阻止亚伯拉罕将独子 献祭、在焚烧的荆棘中召唤摩西率领希伯来人出埃及、捕拿既囚禁千 年古蛇(龙)撒旦(《启示录》)。米迦勒是最早与撒旦战斗的英雄,其 威能与大魔王并驾齐驱。通常米迦勒的塑像都是拔剑的战士造形, 据旧约《但以理书》传承,米迦勒是以色列的守护天 使,也是世界陷入乱世时必会出现引导世人的大天使。 在伊斯兰教中,对米迦勒的描绘是:《翡翠之翼、番红色之发、 俱百万张脸与口、舌操百万种方言,为人寻求阿拉的赦免》。 《可兰经》记载米迦勒为信徒之罪而流泪,而生出智天使。 在《死海文书》之《光之子与□之子之战》中, 米迦勒以天国副君、光之君主的身份率领天使军团,与□之支配 者Berial(贝利尔)的□之军团决战。(在魔王堕天之前, 天国副君的名位乃是他的。)米迦勒的另一身份,则是在最后审判 时数算人的灵魂的天使。与埃及神话中的天狼星之神西留斯是同一 存在。由此,米迦勒又多了冥界向导的阴气,在这一方面的传说与概念, 米迦勒与希腊神话的 Hermes (到了罗马神话改名为 Mercury)似有互相影响 的痕迹。不知道是不是由于米迦勒事迹太多、人类怀疑他倒底休不休息 的关系,他也被视为司'不眠'的天使。

Gabriel(加百列) :由修美尔语字根GBR演进而来,意味著“总督”、 “统治者”。加百列在伊斯兰教和基督教旧约中和米迦尔同是唯一 被提名道姓的大天使(不过加百列在伊斯兰教中称为吉布列)。旧约圣经 曾提及加百列坐于神的左侧,似是暗示其为女性天使。在伊斯兰教中的 吉布列比基督教的加百列要更受重视,以向先知穆罕默德传达神的话 语而著名。加百列身负140对羽翼(怎么长???),在犹太教和基督教 中俱为与生命过程相关的天使,如受胎报知、复活、慈悲、启示乃 至于死等等。伊斯兰教则视她为真理天使(按:并非所有伊斯兰教徒 都承认加百列属女性)。因其常为人托梦,又被视为司'梦'的天使。 其象征为百合花。加百列的事迹包括为耶稣的受胎、复活和诞生等 报讯,并远在500年前便向先知但以理预告基督的降临、希腊灭波斯 的未来等等。

Raphael(Raffaele)--拉斐尔(拉法叶) :“施治愈之术的光辉使者” ,Rapha 即希伯来文的治愈者、医师等。由于拉斐尔是操治愈术的 天使,和蛇的形象便有了牵连。拉斐尔为第二天的支配天使、力天 使的君主、伊甸园生命之树的守护者、经常站之在神的御座前的七 名天使之一。拉斐尔的传说极其纷乱,他既是大天使,又是力天使, 却有炽天使的六翼,又同时属于智天使、主天使、能天使三位阶。 拉斐尔的形象一直都是愉快的,除了治愈人的疾苦,还传授诺亚 建造方舟的知识与技巧。旧约记载与雅各摔角、解除亚伯拉罕老 年行割礼的痛苦的天使亦相传是拉斐尔。 他治疗的不仅是人的身 体,还包括人的信仰。

Uriel(乌利尔) :“神之焰”(也有人称为“神之光”),与“神之颜” 法奈尔大天使被视为同一存在。支配Tartarus(希腊神话中的地狱, 由此可见乌 利尔有很强的希腊'血统')和太阳、诸行星的运行, 同时既是炽天使也是智天使。《启示录》第八章所云掌圣火、 与神最靠近的大天使可能便是乌利尔。相对于拉斐尔的快活天使形 象,乌利尔是恐怖的愤怒天使之貌。在终结之时把所有偶像破坏 (把所有偶像崇拜者带到神的面前接受制裁),奉神之命使义人复活, 把灵魂吹入他们的身体。在地狱执行以永远的火焚烧罪孽深重的人 等等苦刑,亦即义之天使、地狱长官,掌管自然现象及天体的运行。 传说将秘法卡巴拉授与人间的也是乌利尔,因此在反魔法的八世纪 白色恐怖时期,乌利尔被教廷严加批判,后世才得以在教会中复权。 配合其形象,在伊甸园口持火焰之剑把守的智天使,以及监看雷电、 恐怖的天使,也都被视为乌利尔的分身。可是不知 怎的,有些神秘主义宗派(可能是Gnosticism)认为这位正义天使掌管 诗文。

Metatron(梅塔特隆) :梅塔特隆在诸多大天使的候补中, 最为宗教律法学者所偏好。而他也有众多面貌和名称,如 “神之颜之君主”、“火之天使”、“契约天使”、“天使之王” 、“小耶和华”等等。在许多领域上和大天使米迦勒相重叠。 由于梅塔特隆是以诺─挪亚的曾祖─被米迦勒接升天化成的天使, 因此是天使团中年序最幼的。以火之天使现身时,梅塔特隆背 负36翼、无数的眼睛;以“小耶和华”之身现身时,其脸面较 之太阳尤为灿烂,例如在以色列人出埃及时,在西奈旷野的夜 里引导他们的火柱,便是梅塔特隆。在所有天使中,梅塔特隆 是最强壮、最富智计者。

Sariel(沙利叶) :又名 Suriel, Sarakael, Zarachiel,据以以诺书的 讲法,沙利叶的任务是保护人的魂不受罪的玷污,同是也是 管月亮天使。沙利叶可能是传授摩西知识的天使,也可能如拉 斐尔般操治愈术,由于沙利叶是'月之天使',而月亮在古代总 和一些不好的事 (如魔法、死) 连在一起,所以沙利叶也被传为 堕天使之一。但《死海文书》之《光之子与□之子之战》中, 沙利叶却又在光之子的战斗序列之中。只能说沙利叶是双重身份 的天使罢!

Raguel(拉贵尔) :“神之友”。以诺书称其“招引对光之世界的 复仇”,大概是“监视天使的善行”之意,换句话说就是天界纠 察队吧?西元745年拉贵尔和乌利尔同遭罗马教廷整肃,拉贵尔 且被逐出圣人历,这件事一直是件谜团,究竟当时的教皇萨卡列 斯从哪儿来的想法,指称拉贵尔是“冒充圣者”的恶魔 (Demon) 《启示录》中有一段文字提及拉贵尔,谓神差其为冰雪天使们吹 响号角、告诉立于左侧者天谴要降临了。此外,在以诺升天的传 说中,有米迦尔为以诺除去人的躯壳,拉贵尔将以诺接运升天成 为梅塔特隆大天使的说法 。其常务为大地之天使,第二天的守护者。

Remiel(雷米尔) :“神的慈悲”、“等待复活之日的魂之王”, 将人的灵魂引导向最后的审判。《以诺书》指称雷米尔是背教者 的导师,是堕天使之一,对魂魄之事知之甚详,但也是常侍神前 的七名大天使之一,负有传达七名大天使的指示的责任。这是个 十分矛盾的叙述… 其事迹包括歼灭进犯耶路撒冷的亚述大军(另一说是米迦尔所为), 其特技为统辖幻觉,既打败亚述大军,自也打败了亚述的护国神 ─“巨鹰”尼斯洛克(权天使统领之一。)

Rasiel(拉结尔) :号称“秘境与至高之神秘天使”。传说中的 《天使拉结尔之书》(Sefer Rasiel) 记载了天上地下1500项神奥 的知识,拉结尔将此书授予亚当。以诺将一些《天使拉结尔之书》 的内容转载于《以诺书》之中,该书后来又交给了挪亚,后者依 此建造了方舟,后来以色列所罗门王似曾短暂拥有,其后便消失 无踪了。犹太秘法“卡巴拉”有流传一份天使文书,若非附有 希伯来文译解,根本就是天书一部。据称即是《天使拉结尔之书》 的一部分。 拉结尔是座天使的支配者,显像为灿烂的白焰,以翼 包裹智天使,使其火舌不致烧著守护天使们。在《巨人之书》中,有著不同于“旧约创世纪”的大洪水的记载。

这儿的说法是:二百名被称为古利格利 (Grigori 神之子,意思 是 看守者 Watchers、睁目观看者、不眠者 等,有如希腊神话里的百眼巨人) 的天使 (第九阶天使, Angels;或第十阶天使),见神所造的人类的女子美貌,便与之交合、产下了邪恶狂乱的巨人族 (Nephilim)。 愤怒的神便指示诺亚造好方舟逃命,以大洪水消灭了地上的万物, 并将古利格利打入天牢。如谜一般的古利格利Grigori(以下以看守天使--Watching Angels--称之), 是由完整的《以诺书》所揭露的、总数仅仅200人的天使团,不属天 界天使团,是为神所造的人类 (ADAM ) 服务的使者。有人认为看守 天使也是第九阶天使中之外派部队,也有人认为应被分类为第十阶天使,不列入天国九阶天使之序。看守天使别名'神之子',可是其实这个称号没什么特别的涵意,因为所有有形体的天使也都可以叫 作'神之子',更别提基督了。且不管他们是不是天国正规天使团成 员好了,有传说指出有七名背叛神的看守天使,以サタナイル (Satanail,很象Satan)为首,被囚于第五天禁闭所。 据说,罗马教廷公布的教皇文书正式定义这些古利格利为第十阶天使。 将看守天使界定为不属天界正规天使团的下界天使的话比较容易套 进多种传说。比方说,《创世纪》和《巨人之书》称天使堕落肇因于贪恋人间女子、生下巨人族而遭天谴(挪亚洪水事件),初期注释 家解释说有 9/10 的守护天使是如此堕落的; 《启示录》及旧约《以赛亚书》则暗示撒旦因不服圣子而率 1/3 天使 (133,306,668名),于天界北部边境举起反旗,最后所有叛党一概被击 落地狱(当然,在圣经中是没有这段的,这个故事是在《失乐园》中陈 述的)。其实这和看守天使们的堕落完全不同的两次堕落,但由于基 督教正典对其隐讳不明,所以看守天使的这一堕落传说很容易和以 撒旦为首的那次天使叛天行为混为一谈。《死海文书》中才真正讲 述了这段故事。 在《死海文书》的开卷中就提及了一个在圣经中故意被遗漏的细节, 那就是伊甸园的所在地,它并不在地球,那时的地球只是无垠的地狱顶层,是天堂地狱的分界处。伊甸园坐落在神的净土-白之月的 中心。它由神创造的第一对人类-----ADAM 和 LILITH 守护着,LILITH离开后就由ADAM和EVE担任此职。 后来由于他们偷 吃禁果,他们被驱逐出了伊甸园。他们虽然仍在神之净土,但必须 自力更生。无数的光阴过去了, ADAM的后裔们遍布了这片神的净土。而看守天使正是为看守、 照料所有在此新 天地的受造物,而新创造的天使族群。可是不幸地, 这一群中有 9/10 禁不住考验,放弃了职责投入美女的怀抱,生下了 邪恶的巨人,因此遭天谴。天谴可能是也将他们打入地狱,或褫夺 其神性、放逐于地上流浪,或乾脆撤消其存在(彻底消灭),在堕落 之后,一部份被囚于第五天牢房,一部份被放逐到地狱成为各地 LILIN 的神祗,只有 1/10 仍受神旨在地狱 (清b在的地球) 执行勤务。看守 天使 的堕落,也有人认为是出于善意,想将所有的知识和技能传授给人类而 逾越了界限。


Azazel:希伯来语“神之强者”之意,另有 Azael、Asiel、Hazazel 、Azel 等称呼。他拥有炽天使智天使的位格,是看守天使群的指 挥者。在 Nephilim (看守天使与人类所生的巨人) 遍布全地制造灾难 后,身为指挥官的 Azazel 自然得负完全的责任。据说他被其它大天 使埋在耶路撒冷附近的深坑中,处以永远的幽闭处份,在最后的审 判日将被投到火湖里去。另外一种传说,是 Azazel 拒绝率领看守天 使服务人类,说:“火之子焉可拜土之子?”因而被罚。在地狱里, 因其原始的崇高地位和权能,被 Lucifer 任为左右手。形体有七个蛇形头、十四张脸和12枚羽翼。









Gadrel:“我得神之助”。据说在以诺书中指称Gadrel曾引诱夏娃。 Gadrel给人类的是工具和武器制造法。







Usiel:“神的力量” 基督教中关于天使的教义


圣经中用了几个不同的字眼来界定天使。 天使:希伯来文是malak,简单的意思是「使者」。这个字可指人的使者(王上十九2),或神的使者(创二十八12)。这字基本的意思是「受差遣者」。作为神的使者,天使是「天上的存有,受神差派承担使命的」。这字在旧约总共用了103次。希腊文angelos在新约也一共用了175次,可是这字用来指人的,只有6次。angelos(希腊文)类似malak(希伯来文),都是指「使者……是代表差遣他的那一位说话及行事的。」







天使是灵体:虽然天使能够以人的身体向人显现(创十八3),但天使称为「灵」(来一14),这说明了天使是没有血肉之躯的;天使不象人类可以嫁娶(可十二25),天使也不会死亡(路二十36)。 天使都是被创造的:诗篇作者呼唤大自然,要赞美神的创造。耶和华用他的话创造了这些天上的灵体(诗一四八2至5)。约伯受到提醒,天使受造时,曾向神赞美歌唱(伯三十八6至7)。基督创造了至终要向他献上赞美的天使(西一16)。 天使都是同时被造,而且数目众多:歌罗西书一章16节所提到的创造,指出天使的被造,是一次过的行动。天使的创造不是延续性的。因为天使不能生育(太二十二30),天使的数目也是固定的。天使受造的数目有「千万」之多(来十二22),虽然「千万」(希腊文muriasin)这个词,按原文意思是一下,但这里所指的是无数之多(比较启五11)。启示录五章11节重复提到千万,意思是指天使的数目是不能数算的。 天使的等级比人高:人类(包括我们道成肉身的主)都是「比天使微小一点」(来二7)。天使不会受到人所受的限制,因为天使是不会死亡的(路二十36)。天使比人更有智慧(撒下十四20),但这智慧也是有限的(太二十四36)。天使比人更有能力(太二十八2;徒五19;彼后二11),但天使的能力也是有限(但十13)。 天使与人比较,特别是在未来的关系上而说,天使都是受到限制的。天使不是按神的形象被造,所以天使不能分享人在基督救赎工作上荣耀的结局。到世界的末了,被赎的人会被提升,高过天使(林前六3)。


侍奉神:基路伯对的侍奉,是保护神的圣洁;而撒拉弗对神的侍奉,是围绕神的宝座,表明神的圣洁。 侍奉基督:由基督降生之初至基督第二次来临,天使都担当侍奉基督的重要工作。天使对基督的侍奉,更是基督神性的证明。正如天使环绕父的宝座,天使也照样服侍神的儿子。












(Ⅳ)指引——天使指引腓利,向埃提阿伯的太监作见证(徒八26)。天使又安排哥尼流与彼得相会,令外邦人被接纳,进入信徒的群体(徒十3、22)。 (V)让祷告得蒙答允——信徒祈求彼得从狱中被释放,天使就释放他,这两件事似乎是有关连的(徒十二1至11)。同样地,但以理的祷告,也得着天使的回应和解释(但九20至27;比较十10至十二13)。

(Ⅵ)带领信徒归回天家——路加福音十六章22节形容拉撒路之死,天使将他带到亚伯拉罕的怀里。这正显明神是怎样将死去的圣徒领回主的家中。 与不信者的关系:天使负责向不信者施行审判。天使宣告所多玛的毁灭,这是因为人的罪恶(创十九12至13)。在七碗之灾的高峰前,天使宣告属世政权的崩溃,和拜兽者的命运(启十四4、7、8、9、15、17至18)。天使也因为耶路撒冷的百姓拜偶象,而向他们施行审判(结九1至11)。有一位天使击打希律亚基帕王一世,令他致死,因为他亵渎神(徒十二23)。在末世,天使要成为审判的使者,将不信者丢在火湖里(太十三39至42)。在大灾难中,天使吹响审判的号角(启八2至12,九1、13,十一15);天使要将七碗之灾倾倒在地上(启十六2至17)。




*** 狮子座——费切尔




















关于对活人鱼的发现也是有的。1962年曾发生过一起科学家活捉小人鱼的事件。英国的《太阳报》,中国哈尔滨的《新晚报》及其它许多家报刊对此事进行了报道。前苏联列宁科学院维诺葛雷德博士讲述了经过:1962年,一艘载有科学家和军事专家的探测船,在古巴外海捕获一个能讲人语的小孩,皮肤呈鳞状,有鳃,头似人,尾似鱼。小人鱼称自己来自亚特兰蒂斯市,还告诉研究人员在几百万年前,亚特兰蒂斯大陆横跨非洲和南美,后来沉入海底……现在留存下来的人居于海底,寿命达300岁。后来小人鱼被送往黑海一处秘密研究机构里,供科学家们深入研究。  ……  诸如“人鱼”这类海底奇异生物的存在由于有了实物作证,那么它也就由人们所谓的“荒诞”、“迷信”、“神话”的东西转变为当前一项严肃的科学研究课题了。




真正的美人鱼或许在各类的电影电视中看得比较多。通常,我们所指的美人鱼其实是:海牛类动物例如海师,海豹等,不过其中只有一种是被科学家们普遍公认的“美人鱼”——儒艮儒艮 儒艮俗称美人鱼,是世界性珍贵兽类,人们极少见到 别名 人鱼 学名 Dugong dugong 英文名 dugong 儒艮科 Dugongidae 分布 广东、广西、海南和台湾南部沿海 国家一级保护动物 儒艮的身体呈纺锤型,长约3米,体重300-500千克。全身有稀疏的短细体毛。没有明显的颈部,头部较小,上嘴唇似马蹄形,吻端突出有刚毛,两个近似圆形的呼吸孔并列于头顶前端;无外耳廓,耳孔位于眼后。无背鳍,鳍肢为椭圆形。尾鳍宽大,左右两侧扁平对称,后缘为叉形,无缺刻。鳍肢的下方具一对乳房。背部以深灰色为主,腹部稍淡。 儒艮为海生草食性兽类。其分布与水温、海流以及作为主要食品的海草分布有密切关系。多在距海岸20米左右的海草丛中出没,有时随潮水进入河口,取食后又随退潮回到海中,很少游向外海。以2-3头的家族群活动,在隐蔽条件良好的海草区底部生活,定期浮出水面呼吸。常被认作“美人鱼”浮出水面,给人们留下了很多美丽的传说。 儒艮是由陆生草食动物演化而来的海生动物,曾遭到严重捕杀,资源受到破坏,亟待加强保护。 其实,美人鱼并不美,它就是生活在我国广东、广西、台湾等省沿海一带的一种海兽,叫儒艮。这个名字是由马来语直译过来的,也有人称它为“南海牛”。除我国外,在印度洋、太平洋周围的其他一些国家也有它生活的足迹。   
美国佛罗里达州立大学的怀特教授可谓一名名副其实的“美人鱼博士”。他不辞劳苦,整日与美人鱼打交道,精心研究美人鱼的习性和生活,获得了大量珍贵的第一手美人鱼材料。仅最近5年,经怀特博士救助的受伤美人鱼就达450头。美人鱼学名儒艮。美人鱼喂奶时以其粗壮的手拥抱着孩子,头部和胸脯全部露出水面,酷似在水中游泳的人,故有“美人鱼”之美称。事实上,美人鱼与人为善,尽管身材魁梧,但其性情十分温善,与任何生物包括人类都友好相处。美人鱼主要生活在热带和亚热带水域,在北美洲主要安居在墨西哥海湾佛罗里达半岛沿岸。就是在这个美人鱼世世代代生活的海湾,由于近10年来半岛的开发,人口骤增,工业污染,使美人鱼正面临濒危的境地。 儒艮性情安静,行动缓慢,白天总似昏昏欲睡,饱食以后大部时间潜入30~40米深的海底, 伏于岩礁等处,消磨时光。苍灰色的体色使它不易被发现。它喜生活于近岸浅海,从不到大洋深海中冒险。每当傍晚或黎明便到处觅食,大口吃着海藻或其他海草。每天要吃几十公斤,食量很大。它是靠臼齿磨碎食物,而不是像牛那样的反刍动物。